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Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Installing firefox-10.0.1.tar.bz2 in ubuntu 10.04/Linux|Installing firefox in linux|Installing latest version of firefox in linux/ubuntu|Installing firefox in ubuntu/linux

Installing firefox is much easier as it is available precompiled archived in .tar.bz2,you don't have to compile and then install it,you just have to download and extract it and run the executable file named as firefox and firefox will be opened for you. Below I have given a simple method to install the latest version of firefox in linux as follows:

1. Download the firefox from

2. Extract the file using terminal by typing command [tar -xvjf firefox-10.0.1.tar.bz2]. This will extract the contents in the current directory.

3. First method:Now right click on desktop and click on create a launcher and fill the 'type' as 'application',fill in the name as you want,In the command text box browse the path to the firefox file which is in the extracted file and then click on 'ok'. Now click on firefox and your firefox will launch.
   Second Method:  Reach to the firefox-10.0.1 directory which is made after
extracting and then type in terminal[./firefox]. This will launch firefox from current directory.

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

How to install .bin file in ubuntu linux using terminal

Most of the developments kit are archived in .bin format which are ready to install binary files you just have to make them executable and your OS will interpret them. For example Real player/Adobe reader/Java is available in .bin format.To install proper .bin files proceed as follows and we are assuming the file name as file.bin:
1. Copy the file to Desktop.

2. Open the terminal and reach to desktop as follows:
    [cd Desktop]

3. Make the file executable using chmod,for more details use [man chmod]
    [sudo chmod +x file.bin].

4. [./file.bin]
5. Follow the instructions displayed on terminal.

Installing debian files in ubuntu 10.04|Saving debian files while installing software/packages in ubuntu|Installing vlc in ubuntu

For new users installing software in ubuntu is cumbersome as downloading your softwares again after every fresh installation is annoying here is a solution for you if you have installed ubuntu and you want to store the softwares as you do in windows for future use.

When you install any package in ubuntu using apt-get install it first get downloaded in the cache located in /var/cache/apt/archives. Here all the debian files which are required by your software are downloaded first or you can say all the dependencies related to your software are stored here and as the downloaded finishes dpkg which is debian package manager installs the debian files using the files in current directory.So if you have debian files stored some where you can manually install your software,so our target here is to store debian files as we install any software so that we can manually install it in future if required.

Take an example suppose we are installing vlc media player,do as follows:
1. Clean the cache
[sudo apt-get clean]

2. Install vlc
[sudo apt-get install vlc]

3. Save the debian files related to vlc to some directory ,here I am using /home/tarun/vlc,you can choose any directory.
[cp  /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb   /home/tarun/vlc]

4. Now to reinstall vlc on some other machine having the same OS,copy the files to some place on the harddisk and reach to that directory using cd command.
[cd vlc]       //here you have to reach the vlc directory no matter where you have placed it
Now install vlc as follows:
[sudo dpkg -i *.deb]

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Graphics.h in Linux for C and C++|Graphics.h in ubuntu|graphics.h in Linux

Graphics.h in Linux for C and C++

Most of the students in Windows use graphics.h header file in there programs that are written in Borland TurboC. This is a reason that some don’t wanna migrate to Linux well there is a solution for that to. Just follow the steps that i did in Linux/ubuntu.

First install the gcc and g++ compiler by running sudo apt-get build-essential to install necessary compiler tools.

Then, install the following packages:

We can install them via Synaptic Package Manager(System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager) one by one or you can type the following command in the terminal :
sudo apt-get install libsdl-image1.2 libsdl-image1.2-dev guile-1.8 guile-1.8-dev libsdl1.2debian-arts libartsc0-dev libaudiofile-dev libesd0-dev libdirectfb-dev libdirectfb-extra libfreetype6-dev libxext-dev x11proto-xext-dev libfreetype6(upgrade) libaa1 libaa1-dev libslang2-dev libasound2 libasound-dev

After this download libgraph-1.0.1 to your Home Folder.
Right click on it and press “Extract here”
Now type in the terminal
sudo make
sudo make install

This completes the installation.
You can compile your program like this:
g++ test.cpp -o test.o -lgraph
And execute the program by ./test.o

If on compile it gives u an error that says “could not load shared libraries” or something like that just run the following command and it should fix it
sudo cp /usr/local/lib/libgraph.* /usr/lib

An example program(to print a rectangle) :

int main(void)
int gd=DETECT, gm=VGAMAX;
initgraph(&gd, &gm, 0);
//moveto(0, 0);
return 0;

If there are any problems please leave a comment.
You can also see videos posted by Reversehack,this is a very good and clean video you need not to read the above text if you have downloaded the video from here.


Installing Grub after windows swipe out grub usinglive cd and supergrub

Here we are going to discuss two methods one is recovering from live cd and other is using super grub:
First method:
Boot in your machine from live cd and run the live desktop session using try ubuntu option and do as follows.

This is a simple and quick method to restore grub from live cd.  The terminal is used for entering commands and you must know the partition in which you have installed boot i.e sda1 or sda3 or hda1 like that,if you have not made a different boot partition then you must know your root partition. Now problem starts here because some use does not know the partition name correctly.
Open a terminal by selecting Applications, Accessories, Terminal from the menu bar.
Determine the partition with the Ubuntu installation. The fdisk option "-l" is a lowercase "L". 

[Sudo fdisk -l]
If you are not sure of partition then look for small partition you are comfortable for formatting.
Now the mount the partition onto /mnt using command below as follows:
[sudo mount /dev/sdxn /mnt

here n is replaced by integer "1","2" or "3" etc. and x is replaced by a,b or c etc.
Run the grub install command as described below,this will install grub again .
[sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt   /dev/sdx]

Now reboot and everything seems to be alright.

 Second Method:
Super grub disk is used to repair grub and restore original MBR, so that the disk does not get damaged once the Linux partition is formatted. Super Grub can be downloaded for free and then burned to a CD to make a Super Grub disk live CD.The live CD can be used to repair grub by fixing the boot of GNU Linux. The Super Grub disk can be used to restore MBR back to Windows, if the user wishes to leave the GNU Linux OS and install Windows. Before formatting the Linux partition, the Super Grub disk live CD has to be used to restore the original MBR. 

Super Grub Disk is used to repair Grub and the MBR and reinstall on another partition. 
It can also restore the original MBR uninstalling Grub for users wishing to leave GNU/Linux, without risk of making the computer unusable after formatting the Linux partition. 

You can download Super Grub Disk at this address: 

Select the file. "Iso" the most recent. 
You can also download versions for other media (USB floppy) to this page: 

The Use

As mentioned above, Super Grub Disk can be used to repair grub, either restore the original MBR.
Once the image. "Iso" download, see this tutorial for burning it.

Launch of Super Grub Disk
  • Start your computer from the CD Super Grub Disk.
  • Select "Super Grub Disk" from the list and click OK. Then select the language.
  • Some details are displayed, including an explanation of the main menu in text mode, click OK to continue.

Repair Grub

Sometimes, unfortunately, we should reinstall Windows, unfortunately after installation, Windows is the only system accessible from MBR because it has been rewritten.
  • From the main menu for Super Grub Disk, select "GNU / linux".
  • Then "Fix boot of GNU/linux"
  • A message will indicate that the operation was successful; Super Grub Disk will detect your installation of Linux and reinstalled GRUB on MBR using the configuration file found.

Confirm and return to the main menu by selecting the top of each menu.

  • Choose "Restart PC" to the last screen.

Restore MBR back to Windows

You may decide to leave GNU/Linux, here's how the world of free software will help you anyway in your approach. 

Perform the following before you format the partition GNU/Linux

  • From the main menu for Super Grub Disk, select "Windows".
  • Then select "Fix Windows startup.
  • A message will warn you that rewriting MBR is not a safe operation, the same warnings are given from a recovery CD of Windows when introducing the command to the C:


Despite the excellent free software GNU / Linux, these manipulations are not without risk, as there is not infallible, we prefer to advise you. 
But nothing ventured, nothing gained! Let us continue ... 

to emphasize that there are alternatives to uninstall Grub/Lilo MBR HERE
  • Then select your operating system Windows in the list.
  • Then select the disk in which MBR will be restored.
  • Operations continue after validation and MBR is restored successfully.
  • Navigate to the main menu by following the top of each menu.
  • And restart your PC.

Once the operations have been completed and your computer rebooted, Grub has disappeared leaving a conventional Windows startup.

Monday, February 6, 2012

Ubuntu 10.10 review

It seems like just yesterday that Ubuntu Linux 10.04 was released, but here we are and Ubuntu 10.10 has just been released. Wow! How time flies!

There has been some controversy over this release, with some folks saying that Canonical’s six-month release cycle is too often and that there aren’t enough things in this release to warrant an upgrade.

I politely disagree with that assessment, and I’ll show you why in this review. Ubuntu 10.10 is a worthwhile though not overwhelmingly impressive release; it’s worth considering as an upgrade if you are already running an earlier version of Ubuntu. It’s also certainly worth looking at if you are new to Ubuntu and are thinking about using it as your desktop operating system.

What’s New In This Release

Here’s a sample of the new features in this release:

The GNOME base platform has been updated to the current 2.32 versions. This particularly includes the new dconf and gsettings API.

Evolution was updated to the 2.30 version, which operates much faster compared to the version in Ubuntu 10.04 LTS.

The Sound Indicator has been enhanced to include music player controls.

The boot process is cleaner and faster.

New themes, new icons, and new wallpaper bring a dramatically updated look and feel to Ubuntu.

Shotwell has replaced F-Spot as the default photo manager.

Gwibber has been updated to support the recent change in Twitter’s authentication system, as well as changing the back end storage to improve performance.

The Sound Indicator has been enhanced to include music player controls.

The Ubuntu Software Center has an updated look and feel, including the new “Featured” and “What’s New” views for showcasing applications, an improved package description view, and a “For Purchase” software category has been added. You can also now easily access your package installation history too.

Ubuntu One: Polished desktop integration with new sign up and sign in process. Tighter integration with Ubuntu SSO. Nautilus enhancements for managing folder sync preferences. Faster file sync speed. Share links to music within the Ubuntu One Music Store.

I’m happy to see the update to GNOME 2.32. It goes beyond the scope of this review to delve into changes to GNOME in 2.32.

I’m glad that Gwibber has been changed to match Twitter’s new authentication system. If you use Gwibber you shouldn’t have a problem tweeting in this release.

The speed increase to Evolution is certainly a welcome development in this release of Ubuntu. These days I generally prefer webmail to local email, but I know a lot of people who still use Evolution. So it’s good to see a significant performance increase available for Evolution users.

Shotwell is arguably better than F-Spot as a photo manager. I can’t say that I’m wowed by either of them, but I don’t do a lot with photos so that’s probably why. I suspect we’ll hear some moaning and groaning from F-Spot fans about this decision though. Not to worry, you can get F-Spot in the Ubuntu Software Center so it’s still available.

This is just the basic overview,overall there are lot of changes have been done under the cover.

Ubuntu 11.04 review

Canonical has made great strides with its Ubuntu operating system in just a few years, more than other developers have made in a decade. Mark Shuttleworth, founder of the Ubuntu distribution, is known for his risk taking nature and Ubuntu 11.04 is evidence of that attitude.

Natty Narwhal has been promoted as a groundbreaking Linux distribution, especially regarding the new and almost unique interface, called Unity. It's still unclear if Canonical has managed to pull it off, as there is major resistance in the open source community towards embracing Unity and all its features, but we hope to shed some light on the new and improved Ubuntu 11.04 OS and sway people in a direction or another.

Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) has passed through the usual steps before reaching a stable version (3 Alphas and 2 Betas), but respecting the allotted schedule which practically states that a new version of Ubuntu surfaces once every six months.

First impressions
Lets assume that most users don't actually install alpha and beta distributions. What's the impact of a new interface, radically different from anything that has been done before, on the user's ability to maneuver and successfully comprehend what the developers have actually intended?

The first minute of contact with the new Unity environment is one of wonder and appreciation. Unfortunately, we now live in a time when people don't want to learn new stuff in order to use an operating system or a new program. That is precisely the reason why Linux, Microsoft and Apple developers don't make big jumps in terms of design and functionality, as they don't want to alienate people from their operating systems.


For some users, Unity is too big of a leap. Canonical has decided to scrap the conventional two-panel look and replace it with a lateral dock menu, which so far is stuck on the left side of the screen (sorry left-handed users). Unity can be shrunk and most of the icons can be moved or deleted, but some of them are fixed and, for now, can't be interfered with.

Right about now, Ubuntu users are probably grinding their teeth if they want to use Unity or not, thinking they can never accept an interface which is not as flexible as the old one. I promise, it has a lot of good features and even if we don't want to admit it, this is the future.

Some call it an omission and others call it negligence, but the feature that is most missed in Unity is the ability to group icons by category, like Internet, Office, Audio and Video and so on.

We don't want to be picky, but we have to mention that there are two icons on the bottom of the dock, that seem to have the purpose of gathering all the software installed in the system, in one single place. They are cumbersome and most likely will get redesigned in the near future or with Ubuntu 11.10.

Other changes
The biggest change, except Unity, is, of course, the introduction of the LibreOffice office suite, instead of outdated This is a really good choice, LibreOffice being a lot lighter in memory usage and a lot prettier. It's still using the ODT format so there's no need to worry that your old documents and other projects from won't work.

Another significant change is the replacement of the old music player, Rhythmbox, with Banshee. I can't say it's much of a difference as they look very similar, but apparently it's a lot more stable. Even if it's written in GTK# and Mono, it integrates really well with the new menubar so users will have an easy time using it.

Lots of other software packages received smaller changes, but the last one worth mentioning are the new overlay scrollbars. Nautilus now uses a new set of scrollbars which are smaller and placed outside of the actual window. When the mouse gets close to where the scrollbar should be, they change their size and become draggable. It's a nice touch and it makes you wonder why this hasn't been done before. The environment looks a lot cleaner and spacious this way.


It's really hard to draw a line and take a firm stand, saying it's either good or bad. As we see it, Ubuntu 11.04, including Unity, is a major step forward. We would like nothing more than Canonical to use all the criticism and improve this amazing interface.

As we said in the beginning of the review, people have a hard time adjusting to major changes, but Unity is more than a change in perspective. It will be the new face of Ubuntu, and, like all major stars, it will endure some corrective surgery to make it more appealing to the broader masses.

It may seem odd to complain about tons of problems with the new interface and in the same time make a recommendation in favor of that interface, but the bottom line is that we liked Unity, with all its issues, and we hope that it will improve and finally move forward beyond what is most likely the last remaining bastion of a bygone era.

Ubuntu can only keep itself on the edge and in competition if it improves and changes faster than users expect. Change drives the innovation and Canonical has proved, with Unity, that they can compete in the next decade with all the major players in the world, when it comes to great operating systems.